We offer highly customized editing for academics and narrative non-fiction writers working on journal articles, book manuscripts, and essays. We also edit white papers, case studies, blogs, and annual reports for organizations and businesses.

We specialize in the following subject areas where we have specialized knowledge and/or formal training:

  • science
  • health
  • social science
  • sustainability, conservation, green energy
  • nature and the outdoors
  • South Korea (politics, culture, history, society, food, traditional drinks)
  • wine (history, culture, viticulture, vinification, wine regions, styles of wine)

Style Guides

We have expertise and in-depth experience in the following Style Guides:

  • Canadian Press (CP) – Style used in Canadian media
  • Associated Press (AP) – Style used in United States media
  • Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) – Commonly used in academic writing around the world

We also develop company/organizational Style Guides.

We use the same definitions of editorial skills as described by Editors Canada.

Types of Editing

Structural Editing

Assessing and shaping draft material to improve its organization and content. Changes may be suggested to or drafted for the writer. Structural editing may include:

  • revising, reordering, cutting, or expanding material
  • writing original material
  • determining whether permissions are necessary for third-party material
  • recasting material that would be better presented in another form, or revising material for a different medium (such as revising print copy for web copy)
  • clarifying plot, characterization, or thematic elements

Also known as substantive editing, manuscript editing, content editing, or developmental editing.


Stylistic Editing

Editing to clarify meaning, ensure coherence and flow, and refine the language. It includes:

  • eliminating jargon, clich√©s, and euphemisms
  • establishing or maintaining the language level appropriate for the intended audience, medium, and purpose
  • adjusting the length and structure of sentences and paragraphs
  • establishing or maintaining tone, mood, style, and authorial voice or level of formality

Also known as line editing (which may also include copy editing).


Copy Editing

Editing to ensure correctness, accuracy, consistency, and completeness. It includes:

  • editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage
  • checking for consistency and continuity of mechanics and facts, including anachronisms, character names, and relationships
  • editing tables, figures, and lists
  • notifying designers of any unusual production requirements
  • developing a style sheet or following one that is provided
  • correcting or querying general information that should be checked for accuracy¬†

It may also include:

  • marking levels of headings and the approximate placement of art
  • Canadianizing or other localizing
  • converting measurements
  • providing or changing the system of citations
  • editing indexes
  • obtaining or listing permissions needed
  • checking front matter, back matter, and cover copy
  • checking web links

Note that “copy editing” is often loosely used to include stylistic editing, structural editing, fact checking, or proofreading.




Examining material after layout or in its final format to correct errors in textual and visual elements. The material may be read in isolation or against a previous version. It includes checking for:

  • adherence to design
  • minor mechanical errors (such as spelling mistakes or deviations from style sheet)
  • consistency and accuracy of elements in the material (such as cross-references, running heads, captions, web page heading tags, hyperlinks, and metadata)

It may also include:

  • distinguishing between printer’s, designer’s, or programmer’s errors and writer’s or editor’s alterations
  • copyfitting
  • flagging or checking locations of art
  • inserting page numbers or checking them against content and page references

Please note that proofreading is checking a work after editing; it is not a substitute for editing.